Il Parco Nazionale del Gargano: la protezione della diversità dei paesaggi
Abstract: Gargano National Park: the Protection of Landscapes Diversity
In the past years, a lot of interpretations have been given in terms of sustainable development, sometimes paying more attention to the problem of non-renewable and renewable resources, sometimes with an emphasis on issues that are closely related to social and economic welfare; however, despite the different nuances in the keys of interpretation of the concept, all the defi nitions tend to converge in a unique way within the environmental debate and everything related to the territorial diversity protection. In these terms, even the Gargano National Park has moved in this direction, by promoting specific actions for the exploitation of natural resources and preparing the implementation of plans and programs for the territory development. Considering some data, it is obvious that the Park’s promotion policies are still fragmented and not particularly defi ned regarding the geographical area to which it belongs, carrying out internal imbalances generated by the excessive thrust on summer mass tourism type and by the lack of consideration of all other forms of potential tourism in the area, which would have helped to make desirable the process of diversifi cation of the offer – essential for those areas that today have different poles of attraction – and would undoubtedly slowed the increase of the seasonality problem. And it is just about the aspect of environmental sustainability that emerge the most critical points: the development of heterogeneous process, stimulated by the lack of cohesion between the structural and social organizations, to which the Gargano National Park moved, has contributed to accentuate one of the main problems of the area – the road network – which, through a net shift of the tourists axis toward the coast, has resulted in congestion of external road networks and lack in the internal networks. Therefore, although the tourism represents the largest source of actual and potential richness of the Gargano’s area, also taking into the fact that other sectors such as manufacturing and mechanical presenting percentages on average much lower than the regional and national data, it still doesn’t reach the development levels desirable considering the significant opportunities available over the region. In this work are underlined lights and shadows of the development process that has characterized the last two decades in Gargano National Park, marking the aspects related to tourism, the promotion and development of the territory, identifying the gaps and providing a key view about the possible construction of a real Local Tourist System for an area characterized by an important and attractive natural and cultural heritage.